The pencil
The pencil is a writing material invented by Nicholas- Jacques Conte. Made from material in form of lead and also known as ‘plumbago’ or ‘black lead’. The pencil is still very much in use for drawing and writing.

The slide rule
This is a mechanical analog computer. it is used for multiplication and division. It also has functions like logarithms, roots and exponents, and trigonometry. The slide rule was invented by William Oughtred.

The hornbook
The hornbook is literature displayed on a piece of wood or card. This invention can be linked to the English monk in the sixteenth century who wrote the alphabet on wooden paddles so the pupils in his class can learn to read.

Slates and chalk
Slates are made from pieces of fine rocks framed by pieces of wood as a case to hold them. While the chalk is a softer colored stone used to write on it. It served as a book to students and can be wiped with a piece of cloth. Writing slates are now replaced by notepads and paper books.

The magic lantern
The magic lantern was invented by Christian Huygens in the 15th century. It is the earliest form of projector illuminated by candles. Images were projected through a piece of glass against the wall to teach in classrooms.

This is a mechanical device for typing characters. It has ranges of keys in the English alphabet and characters when you hit the button against the black ribbon. The character reflects on the paper thereby creating words and sentences which could be a piece of information, examination questions, or educational material.

The chalkboard (blackboard)
The blackboard (recently called chalkboard) was considered a great intervention in the history of the classroom. It was claimed to be invented by James Pillans, a Scottish teacher. It was made a classroom necessity in 1844. It is commonly cleaned with a piece of rag or duster. The board can be repainted with the use of charcoal.

It was not only used for direct teaching in some countries. It was used for school broadcasting social action programming and mass literacy among adults. People learned on the radio while on the farm. This invention of learning helped a wide range of people who cannot afford a formal school have access to learning remotely.

Photo gallery credit from google